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Viewing upcoming talks containing the keyword: 8
History of Mathematics
Speaker: Professor Jesper LÃ¼tzen (University of Copenhagen)
Joseph Liouville (1809-1882) was the leading French mathematician of the generation between Cauchy and Hermite. In agreement with the contemporary French emphasis on applied mathematics many of Liouvilleâ€™s contributions to mathematics concerned mathematical physics and in particular mechanics. Even some of his pure theories were inspired by physical problems.
The talk will be non-technical and suitable for all levels of physics and mathematics students. In it I shall give examples of both types of contributions such as:Differential calculus of arbitrary order (fractional calculus), inspired by AmpÃ¨reâ€™s electrodynamics.Liouvilleâ€™s theorem on conformal mappings inspired by Thomsonâ€™s (Kelvinâ€™s) research on electrostatics.Sturm-Liouville theory inspired by heat conduction.Liouvilleâ€™s theorem â€œon the volume in phase spaceâ€ inspired by astronomy (not by statistical mechanics!).Equilibrium shapes of a rotating masses of fluid.Spectral theory of a special kind of integral operator, inspired by the above problem and Gaussâ€™ potential theory.Various examples of the interaction between differential geometry and mechanics, in particular the idea that trajectories of a mechanical system can be thought of as a geodesic in a suitable geometry.
The talk will be followed by wine and nibbles
On: October 12, 2016 From: 16h00 To: 17h00View talk
Physics and Astronomy Colloquia
Speaker: Judith Driscoll (University of Cambridge)
Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in perovskite oxides in 1986, the unearthing of a huge range of physical phenomena in transition metal oxides (TMOs) has been nothing short of remarkable, e.g. new magnetics, ferroelectrics, multiferroics, semiconductors, transparent conductors, calorics, plasmonics, catalysts, ionic conductors. Nearly 150,000 papers were published on the topic â€˜oxide+thin filmâ€™ in the last 10 years, not far from the number published on graphene in this same period. However, there are few applications of complex oxide thin films today. The underlying reason is the lack of understanding of the materials, in terms of their defective nature and in terms of how to engineer them to be perfect and strained optimally. As stated in a recent perspective publication by the EU commission about emerging applications, â€œwe have passed from the perception that materials are in the drawer to the realisation that materials are the bottleneckâ€.
Addressing the oxide thin film bottleneck is long overdue. This talk will discuss new insight into oxide thin films. Then solutions to the problem from the author will be presented, with examples given of unprecedented functional property enhancements in systems such as ferroelectrics, ferromagnetics and ionics. Examples will also be given of the authorâ€™s work in the area of oxide superconductors which has enabled applications to take off.
On: October 28, 2016 From: 10h00 To: 11h00View talk
Exploring catalysis with iron(II) Î²-diketiminate complexes: From dehydrocoupling to hydrofunctionalization
Speaker: Ruth Webster (Bath)
Explo ring catalysis with iron (II) β -diketiminate complexes: From dehydrocoupling to hydrofunctionali zation Ruth L. Webster* Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath. UK firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: The stoichiometric reactivity of β -diketiminate complexes is w ell reported in the literature, indeed the β -diketiminate pro -ligand has proven to be a work -horse of catalysis when utilized with a wide range of metals. However, the catalytic competency of iron β - diketiminate complexes is not well explored as a result, an area of interest for our research group is the development of catalytic competency with iron β -diketiminate complexes. We have already shown that they are proficient catalysts for the dehydrocoupling (DHC) of phosphines 1 (Scheme 1) and have extended the reactivity to phosphine -borane and amine -borane DHC, demonstrating that the system is competitive with seminal work using iron photocatalysis 2 with these substrates. In the pr esence of an olefin, a switch in reactivity t akes place and hydrofunctionaliz ation (hydroboration or hydrophosphination) dominates. Intriguingly, a change in solvent results in a vast change in rea ctivity . Our synthetic studies along with mechanistic insig hts will be discussed. References: 1. A. K. King, A. Buchard, M. F. Mahon and R. L. Webster, Chem. Eur. J. 2015 , 21 , 15960 -15963. 2. A. Schäfer, T. Jurca, J. Turner, J. R. Vance, K. Lee , V. A. Du, M. F. Haddow, G. R. Whittell and I. Manners , Angew . Chem. Int. Ed. 2015 , 54 , 4836 -4841. Download PDF
On: November 2, 2016 From: 15h30 To: 16h30View talk
Speaker: Hiroshi Kageyama (Kyoto)
Recently,Â mixed anion compounds consisting of multiple anions within a single compoundÂ have gathered attention. The use of multiple anions enables unusualÂ coordinationÂ modes and crystal structures, giving them a huge potential for newÂ properties when compared to existing oxides or nitrides. While mixed anionÂ compounds will occupy aÂ central stage in materials development, the field isÂ still quite new.Â In myÂ talk, I would like to show several recent studies on mixed anion compounds with transition metals:
- Oxyhydrides: Topochemical hydride reaction allows access to titanium oxyhydrides with transition metals  . The labile nature of hydride anions offers unique possibilities from multistep low temperature reactionsÂ [2, 3]Â to catalysis.Â
- Oxynitrides: Most of oxynitrides are non-magnetic, which is partly related with highly reductive synthetic condition (i.e., ammonolysis at high temperatures), butÂ high pressure reaction enable us toÂ obtain new magnetic oxynitrides with interesting spin structures Â [4, 5].
- Phosphide-tellurides:Â We have recently found that layered phosphide-telluridesÂ displays exclusive insertion of transitionÂ metals (e.g., Cd, Zn), associated with structural transition.Â Interestingly, the intercalation reactions proceed in solid state and atÂ surprisingly low temperatures (e.g. 80 Â°C forÂ cadmium) .
 Y.Â Kobayashi et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 507-511 (2012).
 T. Yajima et al., Nat. Chem. 7, 1017-1023 (2015).
 N. Masuda et al.,Â J. Am. Chem. Soc.Â 137, 15315-15321 (2015).
 C. Tassel et al.,Â Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.Â 54, 516-521 (2015).
 C. Tassel et al.,Â Angew. Chem. Int.Â Ed.Â 55, 9667-9670 (2016).
 T. Yajima et al., Nat. Commun., accepted.
On: November 4, 2016 From: 15h30 To: 16h30View talk
Speaker: Michaele Hardie (Leeds)
Abstract: A diverse collection of both discrete and polymeric assemblies can been accessed using transition metal -based supramolecular chemistry. These coordination cages are often hollow and thus provide a confined chemical space where other molecules can bound or trapped. The ability to bind other molecules leads to a range of potential applications in molecular recognition, separations and storage, sensing, and as nano -scale reaction vessels. We have been developing the metallo - supramolecular chemistry o f host -type molecules based on a cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) scaffold, and have generated a series of CTV -based ligands with pyridyl or other N -donor functionality. The pyramidal shape of the ligands gives discrete assemblies with distinctive “star -burst” sh apes. A family of “stella octangula” [Pd6L8]12+, the smallest of which is around 3 nm in diameter, for example, contain significant internal cavities and solution studies show that neutral or anionic guests can be contained within the 3 nm cage. Luminescen t cages can be formed with either Ir(III) or Re(I) metal centres. An unexpected trend in this chemistry is the formation of topologically non -trivial assemblies including triply interlocked catenanes, a self -entangled cube and Borromean -like chainmail a rrangement. Using host molecules as components of coordination polymers/MOFs should allow for materials with both specific molecular recognition sites and network channels, however host -guest interactions within and between networks can dictate self -assemb ly outcomes. Download PDF
On: November 9, 2016 From: 15h30 To: 16h30View talk
Speaker: Jeff Long (University of California, Berkeley)
Owing to their high surface areas, tunable pore dimensions, and adjustable surface functionality, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can offer advantages for a variety of gas storage and gas separation applications.Â In an effort to help curb greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, we are developing new MOFs for use as solid adsorbents in post- and pre-combustion CO2 capture, and for the separation of O2 from air, as required for oxy-fuel combustion.1Â In particular, MOFs with open metal cation sites or diamine-functionalized surfaces are demonstrated to provide high selectivities and working capacities for the adsorption of CO2 over N2 under dry flue gas conditions.2Â Multicomponent adsorption measurements further show compounds of the latter type to be effective in the presence of water,3 while calorimetry and temperature swing cycling data reveal a low regeneration energy compared to aqueous amine solutions.4Â MOFs with open metal sites, such as Mg2(dobdc) (dobdc4â€“ = 2,5-dioxido-1,4- benzenedicarboxylate), are highly effective in the removal of CO2 under conditions relevant to H2 production, including in the presence of CH4 impurities.5Â Redox-active Fe2+ sites in the isostructural compound Fe2(dobdc) allow the selective adsorption of O2 over N2 via an electron transfer mechanism.6Â The same material is demonstrated to be effective at 45 Â°C for the fractionation of mixtures of C1 and C2 hydrocarbons, and for the high-purity separation of ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane mixtures.7Â Finally, it will be shown that certain structural features possible within MOFs, but not in zeolites, can enable the fractionation of hexane isomers according to the degree of branching or octane number.8
1.Â Â Â Â Â Sumida, K.; Rogow, D. L.; Mason, J. A.; McDonald, T. M.; Bloch, E. D.; Herm, Z. R.; Bae, T.-H.; Long, J. R. Chem. Rev. 2012, 112, 724.
2.Â Â Â Â Â McDonald, T. M.; Lee, W. R.; Mason, J. A.; Wiers, B. M.; Hong, C. S.; Long, J. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 7056.
3.Â Â Â Â Â Mason, J. A.; McDonald, T. M.; Bae, T.-H.; Bachman, J. E.; Sumida, K.; Dutton, J. J.; Kaye, S. S.; Long, J. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 4787.
4.Â Â Â Â Â McDonald, T. M.; Mason, J. A.; Kong, X.; Bloch, E. D.; Gygi, D.; Dani, A.; CrocellÃ , V.; Giordano, F.; Odoh, S.; Drisdell, W.; Vlaisavljevich, B.; Dzubak, A. L.; Poloni, R.; Schnell, S. K.; Planas, N.; Kyuho, L.; Pascal, T.; Prendergast, D.; Neaton, J. B.; Smit, B.; Kortright, J. B.; Gagliardi, L.; Bordiga, S.; Reimer, J. A.; Long, J. R. Nature 2015, 519, 303.
5.Â Â Â Â Â Herm, Z. R.; Swisher, J. A.; Smit, B.; Krishna, R.; Long, J. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 5664.
6.Â Â Â Â Â Bloch, E. D.; Murray, L. J.; Queen, W. L.; Maximoff, S. N.; Chavan, S.; Bigi, J. P.; Krishna, R.; Peterson, V. K.; Grandjean, F.; Long, G. J.; Smit, B.; Bordiga, S.; Brown, C. M.; Long, J. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 14814.
7.Â Â Â Â Â Bloch, E. D.; Queen, W. L.; Krishna, R.; Zadrozny, J. M.; Brown, C. M.; Long, J. R. Science 2012, 335, 1606.
8.Â Â Â Â Â Herm, Z. R.; Wiers, B. M.; Mason, J. A.; van Baten, J. M.; Hudson, M. R.; Zajdel, P.; Brown, C. M.; Masciocchi, N.; Krishna, R.; Long, J. R. Science 2013, 340, 960.
On: November 15, 2016 From: 13h30 To: 14h30View talk