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Viewing upcoming talks containing the keyword: 19
Physics and Astronomy Colloquia
Speaker: Prof Doug Lin (University of California, Santa Cruz and Carnegie Centenary Professor, University of St Andrews)
In conjunction with Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, we are pleased to host:
Planetary astrophysics is the most rapidly advancing field in the world-wide astronomical community today. Planetary census suggests that planets, especially those similar to the Earth, are prevalent around nearby stars. The game-changing influx of data from exoplanet surveys and characterization of protostellar disks have revitalized intense efforts to understand the formation and evolution of planets including those in the Solar System and to extrapolate the ubiquity of habitable planets and the possibility of finding tell-tale signs of life on them. Emerging comparative planetology shows evidences that planets' diverse structure and kinematic properties are likely to be the byproducts of both the environment of their cradles and the long-term evolution of these complex dynamical systems. I will describe some recent paradigm shifts in the theory of planet formation, especially on the role of planet migration in their evolving natal disks, their interaction with each other and with their host stars. I will also discuss their potential implications on the origin and proliferation of life elsewhere in the Universe.
On: April 21, 2016 From: 17h15 To: 18h30View talk
Physics and Astronomy Colloquia
Speaker: Prof Doug Lin (University of Santa Cruz)
Advanced LIGO event GW150914 has been attributed to the coalescence of two black holes with masses more than double that of most known stellar black holes. Formation of such stellar black holes directly through supernova explosions requires massive, metal-deficient progenitors. This requirement and their nearly equal masses may not be compatible with its occurrence in the local Universe. I consider an alternative possibility which may lead to the robust production of binary black holes with masses up to a hundred solar masses in the proximity of active galactic nuclei (AGN's). I will describe some relevant mechanisms which are analogous to the astrophysics of planet formation. I will discuss the implications of this scenario in the context of structure and evolution of AGN disks including the cause of their super solar metallicity, duty cycle of their active phase, and the rapid growth of their central massive black holes.
On: April 22, 2016 From: 10h00 To: 11h00View talk
Speaker: D Flemming Hansen (UCL)
NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterise the structural dynamics of proteins over many time-scales. Several recently developed NMR methods to characterise protein dynamics will be presented in the talk. These include methods to characterise the structure and dynamics of low-populated and excited states of proteins, as well as methods to characterise protein side-chains dynamics and potassium binding in medium-large proteins. Applications of the recently developed methods to the histone deacetylase enzymes will also be presented.
On: April 27, 2016 From: 15h30 To: 16h30View talk
Speaker: Jim Scott (St Andrews)
Thin-film ferroelectric oxides have become in the past three years the basis of commercial memory devices in Korea, Japan, and the USA, largely for transit fare cards (brand name "Felica" -- similar to the London "oyster card") and cash machines (brand name "Edy") at ca. £100 million/year. Much of this technology was developed in my US university laboratory in the 1980s (hence unfortunately the patent royalties stopped long ago!). I will describe the solid state chemistry of this project and our present work here in the School of Chemistry on multiferroics (ferroelectric ferromagnets) that is trying to combine the best attributes of ferroelectric FRAMs with magnetic MRAMs (RAM = random access memory). The main aim is to discover or invent materials that are ferroelectric and ferromagnetic at ROOM TEMPERATURE (very rare) and are cheap and non-toxic. New favorites include hexaferrites (Ba- or SrFe12O19), gallium orthoferrite GaFeO3, and the ternary perovskites PbFe(1/2)M(1/2)O3Ta(x)Zr(1-x) [M=Ta,Nb].
On: April 29, 2016 From: 14h00 To: 15h00View talk
Speaker: Prof Jun Yuan (York)
Electron microscopy and associated spectroscopy are very powerful imaging and analytical techniques for the study of atomic structure of materials, particularly after the development of aberration correction and monochromator. In the first part of this talk, I will show how we can take advantage of the improved spatial resolution and better understanding of the image formation physics to achieve quantitative atomic structure imaging. The examples will include the 3D structural determination of gold nanocatalysts; the local chemical ordering in nanoalloys and adatom dynamics on two-dimensional materials. In the second part of the talk, I will introduce some applications of spatially and angular resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in nanomaterials research. Finally, I will also show some emerging microscopic studies based on novel electron vortex beams, demonstrating controlled nanoparticles manipulation inside electron microscopy.
On: May 3, 2016 From: 15h30 To: 16h30View talk
Speaker: David Leigh (Manchester)
Over the past few years some of the first examples of synthetic molecular level machines and motors—all be they primitive by biological standards—have been developed.These molecules respond to light, chemical and electrical stimuli, inducing motion of interlocked components held together by hydrogen bonding or other weak molecular interactions.
Perhaps the best way to appreciate the technological potential of controlled molecular-level motion is to recognise that nanomotors and molecular-level machines lie at the heart of every significant biological process. Over billions of years of evolution Nature has not repeatedly chosen this solution for achieving complex task performance without good reason. In stark contrast to biology, none of mankind’s fantastic myriad of present day technologies exploit controlled molecular-level motion in any way at all: every catalyst, every material, every polymer, every pharmaceutical, every chemical reagent, all function exclusively through their static or equilibrium dynamic properties. When we learn how to build artificial structures that can control and exploit molecular level motion, and interface their effects directly with other molecular-level substructures and the outside world, it will potentially impact on every aspect of functional molecule and materials design. An improved understanding of physics and biology will surely follow.
"Pick-up, Transport and Release of a Molecular Cargo using a Small-Molecule Robotic Arm" Nature Chem, 8, 138-143 (2016) • "A Star of David Catenane" Nature Chem, 6, 978-982 (2014) • "Sequence-Specific Peptide Synthesis by an Artificial Small-Molecule Machine" Science, 339, 189-193 (2013) • "A Synthetic Molecular Pentafoil Knot" Nature Chem, 4, 15-20 (2012) • "A Single Synthetic Small Molecule that Generates Force Against a Load" Nature Nanotech, 6, 553-557 (2011) • "A Synthetic Small Molecule That Can Walk Down a Track" Nature Chem, 2, 96-101 (2010) • "Operation Mechanism of a Molecular Machine Revealed Using Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy" Science, 328, 1255-1258 (2010) • "Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Rotaxanes and Molecular Shuttles" Nature, 458, 314-318 (2009) • "A Molecular Information Ratchet" Nature, 445, 523-527 (2007) • "Macroscopic Transport by Synthetic Molecular Machines" Nature Mater, 4, 704-710 (2005) • "A Reversible Synthetic Rotary Molecular Motor" Science, 306, 1532-1537 (2004) • "Unidirectional Rotation in a Mechanically Interlocked Molecular Rotor" Nature, 424, 174-179 (2003) •
On: May 4, 2016 From: 15h30 To: 16h30View talk